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Why cannot Promoters Sell its Stake and Exit from the Company Easily?

Updated: Dec 22, 2023

Securing funding from venture capitalists (VCs) and investors is a significant milestone for any startup. However, the journey doesn't end there; it marks the beginning of a complex relationship between the promoters and the investors. While the influx of capital is crucial for business growth, it comes with strings attached. One of the challenges that often perplex promoters is the difficulty in selling their stakes and making a smooth exit from the company.

Before we explore the intricacies of stake selling, let's acknowledge the crucial role that VC and investor funding plays in a startup's life cycle. This funding is not just about the capital injection; it also brings strategic guidance, industry expertise, and networking opportunities. However, promoters need to be aware that this financial partnership is a two-way street. Investors expect a return on their investment, and this expectation often comes with certain protective mechanisms to safeguard their interests.

Understanding the Shareholders' Agreement (SHA):

The SHA is a legal document that outlines the rights, obligations, and responsibilities of shareholders in a company. This agreement becomes the governing framework for the relationship between promoters and investors. In previous blogs, we've explored various rights that investors typically secure through the SHA, such as board representation, anti-dilution rights, and liquidation preferences. These rights are crucial for protecting the investors' interests, but they can also pose challenges for promoters looking to exit.

Pre-emption Rights:

One common feature of SHA is pre-emption rights, which grant existing shareholders the first opportunity to purchase additional shares before they are offered to external parties. While this is designed to prevent dilution, it can complicate the process of selling stakes to third parties.

Tag-along rights, as discussed in previous blogs, allow minority shareholders (typically the promoters) to join a majority shareholder's sale of shares. While this might seem beneficial, it also means that promoters cannot unilaterally sell their stakes without the consent of the majority shareholders.

On the flip side, drag-along rights enable majority shareholders to force minority shareholders to join a sale. This can be a stumbling block for promoters wanting to retain control or resist a sale that they don't agree with.

Liquidation preference is a contractual right granted to certain classes of shareholders, typically preferred stockholders, that entitles them to receive their investment back before common shareholders in the event of a company's liquidation. This provision serves as a safety net for investors, protecting them from the financial consequences of a company's failure. Mostly all the VCs / Institutional Investors / Early Stage Investors prefer to have this right on the shareholder’s agreement which blocks any action of the promoters to liquidate their stake.

Many SHAs include provisions for exit mechanisms, such as IPOs or strategic sales. However, these often come with lock-up periods, during which promoters are restricted from selling their shares. This is intended to ensure stability during critical phases but can hinder promoters seeking immediate exits.

Non-Compete and Non-Solicit Clauses:

Investors may include non-compete and non-solicit clauses in the SHA to protect their investment and ensure that promoters don't engage in competing businesses or poach key employees. These restrictions can limit the options available to promoters post-exit.


In conclusion, while raising funds from VCs and investors is a significant boost for startups, it comes with its set of complexities, particularly when promoters contemplate exiting the company. Understanding the nuances of the SHA, negotiating wisely, and maintaining transparent communication are essential for navigating these challenges. Promoters must strike a delicate balance between their desire for liquidity and the need to honor the agreements that have been put in place to protect the interests of all stakeholders. By doing so, they can increase the likelihood of a successful exit while maintaining a positive relationship with their investors.


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